ClothTech—sun shade, parachute fabric, sewing threads, interlinings, etc. OekoTech or EcoTech (textiles in environment protection)—erosion protection, air cleaning, prevention of water pollution, waste treatment/recycling, etc. It is a collection of research and academic works in areas of textile manufacturing by the authors with expert background in the topic. Emergence of technical textile products from 1990 and its growth with knitted and woven textiles [12]. Nonwoven fabrics include materials produced by felting and bonding. It is significantly an important sector for industrial development in industrialized and developing countries. Garment design and manufacturing is the combination of art and technology. Singeing The verb ‘singe’ literally means ‘to burn superficially’. Currently, technical textiles occupy strong market consumption. It provided the testing and certification system for chemicals, colorants and auxiliaries used in the processing of textile fiber. 1.1.2 Sewing: the technology of making clothes. Net, lace, and braid are other useful interlaced fabric structures. Natural fibers including cotton and wool have natural impurities, and the purpose of pretreatment is primarily to remove undesired natural fiber content. Furthermore, the country’s manufacturing sector is considered the pillar for the national economy and is ranked as the third-largest manufacturing market in the world [16]. Increasing urban population with rising disposable income is the main source of higher growth in apparel consumption. The fibre is spun into yarn, which is then converted into fabric in a weaving or knitting mill. Most of the processes performed in textile manufacturing release significant toxic and hazard waste to river water, soil and air. Monitoring and controlling process variables during the textile manufacturing process also minimises waste, costs and environmental impact. Peter described the yarn production technology in combination with the economics [11]. Fabrics are converted into wearable garments through the garment manufacturing process in the garment factories. It’s based on principles of collaboration, unobstructed discovery, and, most importantly, scientific progression. They must be readily available and economical. It has a characteristic of accommodating the body contour and provided the ease of movement. However, such man-made fibers are perceived as a separate specialized subject and beyond the scope of this book. MobileTech—car airbags, aircraft seats, boat, seat belt, etc. The market consumption is forecasted for growth at CAGR of 5.1% between 2016 and 2021, reaching to a market value of USD 961.0 billion in 2021 [7]. The production value of the textile manufacturing industry comprised 7% of China’s GDP in 2015 [15]. The range of textile manufacturing is so long. The market size was estimated at 114.2 million tons in 2015, and in terms of monetary value, it is expected to grow at a CAGR of 6.1% from 2016 to 2025 [18]. Open Access is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to all. Cotton is an important natural fiber produced in Asian and American continent since the last around 5000 years in the countries including the USA, India, China, Turkey, Pakistan, Brazil, etc. HeadquartersIntechOpen Limited5 Princes Gate Court,London, SW7 2QJ,UNITED KINGDOM. However, any dyestuff is suitable for a particular type of fiber for dyeing. In the U.S. textile market, the bath category proved to be a growing segment in home textiles during 2004, gaining 2.8% in sales to $3.7 billion, 51% of which is towels at $1.881 billion (Corral, 2005). In 2016, the yarn and fabric market was valued at USD 748.1 billion, where the fabric product was more in consumption and contributed 83.7% and the yarn product was at 16.3%. Flow Chart of Textile Processing 2 3. Asian countries including India, China, Bangladesh, and Vietnam are expected to see a flourishing market with the support of public policies. Most fabrics are presently produced by some method of interlacing, such as weaving or knitting. Toxic gaseous emission from textile processing is estimated to 1715 million tons of CO2, and material waste is 92 million. The eighteenth century witnessed the financial revolution followed by the industrial revolution in the nineteenth and the twentieth century paved the way for the information revolution. The advancement of fiber manufacturing introduced several man-made fibers for conventional textile products; however, cotton is to date a leading textile fiber in home textiles and clothing articles. Each processing stage in yarn manufacturing utilized the machine of specialized nature and provided quality effects in yarn production. Garment manufacturing has seen several advancements in design development, computer-aided manufacturing (CAD), and automation. ECO PASSPORT by OEKO-TEX® is another standard. The chemistry of cotton fiber is the principal source of interesting and useful properties required in finished textile products [2]. A three-stage verification is exercised on chemicals applied in textile processing to demonstrate compliance to safety, sustainability and statutory regulation. Textile processing 1. BuildTech—ropes, tarpaulin, concrete reinforcement, window blind, wall covering, etc. A pretreatment process is generally required to introduce two important value additions in textile substrate including: Removing the undesired content from the fiber mass including dust, coloring matters, undesired oils, lint, trash, etc. Humidity in Textile Manufacturing Textiles in general In the days when cave men ruled the world, people were dress - ing with animal fur to protect them - selves from the elements. h�b```"3��B cb�AAfVAAFF��݁�<9����y݂%'$���i.4���d�ܨ�`������˅]� ���0)���e�:.���72^�hPZ��}�]��pӾ+.�1�qF�\=�3--vk�]b��0H H0��R3O+�+�������pp�c�����f6�`�Zͬ=]nNm�h7��>њ��`���r���l�l��'��0H8��`������)�mܚr������D�d%e'�����a��a }��`s��� W�@�Ă� It covers the rudiments of staple-yarn technology, the manufacturing process, the raw materials, and the production processes for short-staple, worsted, semi-worsted, woolen spinning, doubling, and specialty yarn. Fashion market is followed by technical textiles and household products. Most of the major industrial sectors are benefiting the function of fiber material. Publishing on IntechOpen allows authors to earn citations and find new collaborators, meaning more people see your work not only from your own field of study, but from other related fields too. … However, conventional systems of blending, carding, drawing, roving, and spinning are indicated important in the future [9]. A textile manufacturing process involves the production or conversion of textile fiber through a defined process in a product. Washing of the dyed fabric and the discharge of dye effluent may release 10–50% of dyestuff to the environment [13], and that is the environmental concern associated with the dyeing process. Important topics covered include review of yarn production, filament yarn production, carding and prior processes for short-staple fibers, sliver preparation, short-staple spinning, long-staple spinning, post-spinning processes, quality control, and economics of staple-yarn production. In several developing countries, the textile processing industries are following the practice of ecolabels, and the voluntarily eco-standards to demonstrate the environment- friendly process and product. Textile fibers provided an integral component in modern society and physical structure known for human comfort and sustainability. Technically, singeing refers to the burning-off of. A physical textile manufacturing process is required to convert the textile fiber into yarn; nonwoven, woven, knitted, technical textile; special finishing effects; etc. Grand View Research indicated fashion, technical textiles, and household as the top three sectors by application for the global textile market (Figure 2) [3]. Natural fibers are produced with natural impurities that were removed from the yarn in subsequent pretreatment processes. These are then fabricated into clothes or other artifacts. Our team is growing all the time, so we’re always on the lookout for smart people who want to help us reshape the world of scientific publishing. 11. The manual picking of cotton fiber is now replaced with machine picking. Textile manufacturing is a major industry. INTRODUCTION TO YARN PRODUCTION Spinning is the major part of the textile manufacturing process where three types of fibers are converted into yarn,fabrics,finishing process such as bleaching to become textiles. How? The textile fabrics are made of from yarns in weaving and knitting process. Complex raw materials and manufacturing processes mean the textile industry is particularly dependent on good process control to produce high and consistent product quality. Traditionally, yarn manufacturing comprises a series of processes involved in converting the fiber into yarn. InduTech—conveyor belts, cordage, filtration media, etc. Cotton fiber grown with increased environment-friendly properties is called organic cotton. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. Available from: Eco-Friendly Textile Dyeing and Finishing, Wet processing (dyeing/printing/finishing), Dadabhoy Institute of Higher Education, Karachi, Pakistan. Textile manufacturing or production eduardo galeano memoria del fuego iii pdf is a very complex process. Continuous dyeing technique is performed for large-scale production in the industry. It starts from.processing cotton separating the lint from the seed. Textiles and Clothing Manufacturing: Vision for 2025 and Actions Needed This foresight study used a qualitative methodology engaging with a wide variety of stakeholders to define a 2025 vision for the European textiles and clothing manufacturing industry and propose actions addressing challenges related to trade, innovation, resources and skills. The decline in European textiles manufacturing followed the phasing-out of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) textile quotas , which began in the 1990s and ended After this in 2005. liberalisation in the textiles trade, the share of imports in European clothing consumption increased from % in 2004 to 33 % in 201287 . If the processes continue in similar situation till 2030, the indicated water, gas and waste hazard will increase by at least 50% [20]. Textile manufacturing process. Textile fabric is at least a two-dimensional structure produced by fiber/yarn interlacing. The market enhancement is forecasted to move from 2016 to 2021 at CAGR of 4.8%. An important example is Oeko-Tex Series of Standards that may be briefly described as follows [22]: STANDARD 100 by OEKO-TEX: It may be described as an independent testing and certification system for raw, semi-finished, and finished textile products through all the processing stages. Importantly, wool fiber is renewable and recyclable, which supports its demand in this industry [3]. h�bbd```b``��~ ��,2D2ǃ���@�QFD����H�d�$�q e��e��a`$������ � .3 Faheem Uddin (August 28th 2019). The conventional textile manufacturing process has a long history of converting the natural fiber into useful products including fabric, home textiles, and apparel and more recently into a technical textile through the utilization of special finishing effects (Figure 3). Traditionally, the pretreatment process is performed on cotton, cellulose fibers, wool, and the blend of these fibers with synthetics and semisynthetics. However, the older version of garment manufacturing process is still the main theme today—that is, the cutting and joining of at least two pieces of fabric. Strength, softness, absorbency, dyeing and printing properties, comfort, air permeability, etc. SUSTAINABLE TEXTILE PRODUCTION (STeP) by OEKO-TEX® is a certification system for brands, retail companies and manufacturers in the textile chain to inform the public that they performed sustainable manufacturing processes. R. Nayak, R. Padhye, in Garment Manufacturing Technology, 2015. Today the important topics in the current garment manufacturing industry range over product development, production planning, and material selection. Compound annual growth rate of 4.25% is expected over the years 2018–2025 in the global textile market. The textile manufacturing processes are largely required by the fashion segment in the global textile market. Apparel and garment terms are used interchangeably. Textile fabrics The term fabric can be defined as a planner structure by interlaced/interloped yarns or fibers made by interlocking fibers. The increasing realization of hazards associated with the textile manufacturing by the industrialized region in particular has resulted in the following important phenomena in textile sector: conventional textile processing industries are clustered in developing countries; technical textiles or textile processing with reduced environmental hazards grown in developed region; and. PDF | Complex raw materials and manufacturing processes mean the textile industry is particularly dependent on good process control to produce … n� l L `$���f0utp��$@ The interlaced fibrous structure mainly used is woven, nonwoven, and knitted. Living species are directly or indirectly affected by the inhalation of toxic gases, consumption of contaminated water and food items, and the skin contact of toxic vapors and gases. The other important natural fibers used in conventional textile products are wool and silk. The study of apparel manufacturing market includes all the clothing articles except leather, footwear, knitted product, and technical, household, and made-up items. Brief introduction to this section that descibes Open Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch? The functional attributes of textile fibers are limited. Categories of Fabric w.r.t Treatment3 4. Functional finish market growth (USD million) in the USA for 2014–2025 by product type (Grand View Research, USA [18]). Financial History and Projections. Cotton remains the most important natural fibre, so is treated in depth. By making research easy to access, and puts the academic needs of the researchers before the business interests of publishers. stage of textile manufacturing involves the production of the raw material either by farmers who raise cotton, sheep, silkworms, or flax or by chemists who produce fibre from various basic substances by chemical processes. The selection of garment design, including computer-aided design, spreading, cutting, and sewing; joining techniques; and seamless garment construction are beneficial in meeting the consumer needs. Therefore, today, an individual is consuming more quantity of clothing, and there is an increasing population for higher consumption demand of clothing. PackTech—tea bags, wrapping fabrics, jute sacks, etc. All the processing stages in textile manufacturing from fiber production to finished fabric are experiencing enhancement in process control and evaluation. The resultant textile product can be a finished product ready for consumer market, or it may be an intermediate product to be used as an input (raw material) substance to produce another textile product. Water and chemicals are throughout the processing chain of textiles. Today we are far beyond that point and a wide range of natural as well as synthetic fibers have widely replaced animal fur. Textile fibres may be broadly classified as shown below: Natural fibres These are fibres derived from natural sources like plants or animals. Contact our London head office or media team here. An estimation of the undesired effects to environment associated with the major processing units of textile industry can be presented based on the amount of consumption of chemicals, water and energy used. If you want to download this book , you need to write an unique article about textile related topics. Approximately 10,000 different dyes and pigments are used industrially around the world [13]. Textile Manufacturing Processes. The subject of investigating the alternating finishing and coloration processing sequences may offer the enhanced finish effects or coloration effects [14, 15, 16, 17]. More the chemicals, water and energy consumed in a textile process, higher is the possibility of undesired effects to our planet and living species breathing and breeding in the environment. Several interesting works on the production of yarn are available that provide details of the material processing and technological control. Primarily the natural textile fibers meet the requirements for human consumption in terms of the comfort and aesthetic trends. OEKO-TEX 100 Standard helps the processor and producer of textile product to demonstrate the compliance for legal regulations including those limiting the banned azo colorants, formaldehyde, pentachlorophenol, cadmium, nickel, etc., and the voluntarily prevention of harmful chemicals that are not legally regulated. It is grown without using any synthetic chemicals or pesticides, fertilizers, etc. However, the two terms may be differentiated as apparel is an outerwear clothing and garment is any piece of clothing. This step is necessary because the material is continually under tension throughout the various stages of the textile manufacturing process, including weaving, dyeing, and other finishing processes. depend upon the end-use requirement of fabric to be produced for woven or knitted end products (e.g., apparel or industrial fabrics), sewing thread, or cordage. The resultant textile product can be a finished product ready for consumer market, or it may be an intermediate product to be used as an input (raw material) substance to produce another textile product. Fiber manufacturing and processing, sizing, desizing, scouring, bleaching, mercerization, dyeing, printing, finishing etc., are known for water, chemical, and energy intensive nature. Nevertheless, these models provide six key lessons for Tanzania. Textile Manufacturing Process Pdf. In general the conventional post-fiber formation processes may mainly be classified as physical and chemical textile manufacturing processes. Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution in Britain was centred in south Lancashire and the towns on both sides of the Pennines. The study is useful for yarn manufacturing and its development in the textile industry. The textile industry market is mainly represented by countries China, the USA, India, and the European Union. There are 12 types of technical textile with example product application which may be outlined as under: Meditech—sanitary diapers, bandages, sutures, mosquito nets, heart valves, ligaments, etc. 0 Textile Manufacturing Process Pdf. China and India will remain the leading countries to experience this growth. The chemical textile manufacturing processes include sizing, desizing, scouring, bleaching, mercerization, dyeing, printing, special chemical finishing, etc. To prevent the yarn from breaking during these processes, it is important to strengthen the yarn and reduce friction. No copy paste is allowed and we will check plagiarism to confirm. Man is an ancient friend of fashion. Monitoring and controlling of process parameters may introduce reduction in waste, costs, and environmental impact [6]. The author declares no conflict of interest in writing this chapter. Yarn diameter, hairiness, linear density, permeability, strength properties, etc. Laminating processes are also increasing in importance, and fairly recent developments include needle weaving and the sewing-knitting process. Technical textile market was estimated at USD 165.51 billion in 2017 and is projected to reach USD 203.7 billion by 2022. Introductory Chapter: Textile Manufacturing Processes, Textile Manufacturing Processes, Faheem Uddin, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.87968. However, considering the textile fiber as the basic building unit of any textile product, the textile manufacturing may clearly be identified as the conventional and technical textiles. Printing and coating are limited to surface coloration and may be applied to most of the fiber types, natural fabrics, and synthetics. These benefits can be summarized as follows: • Economic Benefits: 1. Relative to cotton and wool, natural silk is not produced in significant quantity. The core of textile manufacture is fabric production. The global textile industry associated with the apparel and non-apparel products is expected to exceed USD 1000 billion in the next couple of years [5]. In Germany it was concentrated in the Wupper Valley, Ruhr Region and Upper Silesia, while in the United States it was in New England. We are a community of more than 103,000 authors and editors from 3,291 institutions spanning 160 countries, including Nobel Prize winners and some of the world’s most-cited researchers. Unit 1 - Introduction to textile materials ... chemical features to enable further manufacturing processes to become a useful product. The worldwide apparel manufacturing market was valued at USD 785.0 billion in 2016 and estimated to reach the level of USD 992 billion in 2021. Stronger environmental regulations, emission, and pollution control in the application, processing, and service life performance are the challenges in the use of special finishes [19]. A typical diagram of these processes is shown in Figure 11.13-1. Dyeing is the coloring effect throughout the cross section of fiber, and this effect can be produced on any form of textile substrate including fiber/yarn, fabric, garment, and clothing articles. Textile manufacturing is a major industry.It is largely based on the conversion of fibre into yarn, yarn into fabric.These are then dyed or printed, fabricated into clothes which are then converted into useful goods such as clothing, household items, upholstery and various industrial products.. Different types of fibres are used to produce yarn. Edited by: Faheem Uddin. Textile fibers provided an integral component in modern society and physical structure known for human comfort and sustainability. Chemical used in fiber manufacturing and processing of textiles, effluent discharge from the textile dyeing, printing, and finishing, dust, short fibers, and lint released from the yarn manufacturing, volatiles and toxic gases released, etc., are the undesired effects to environment and human lives. Globally, the inefficient dyeing and finishing process may result in the release of 200,000 tons of used dyestuff to the environment. Geotech—nets for seashore and geo structures, mats, grids, composites, etc. Lean manufacturing is a management philosophy that focuses on continuously eliminating any possible waste in the production process. ::X:�r@��F ۣH� �Ǝ������ ���U�A������`��e�;hC��(e�+�\@,N3?��#�J��. Yarn manufacturing using cotton fibers through a sequence of processing stages may be shown by process flow diagram (Figure 4) [8]. The growth is significantly expected in the apparel sector. Textile - Textile - Production of fabric: Fabric construction involves the conversion of yarns, and sometimes fibres, into a fabric having characteristics determined by the materials and methods employed. Textile manufacturing is an important subject in textile programs and processing industries. [1]. The content may serve as a useful learning through the research work and the literature review as the subject tutorial. Knitted fabrics include weft types and the warp types, raschel, and tricot. 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